Read this article to know about the summary of salient features of Renaissance in English Literature.
Also read: Characteristics of Elizabethan Age
The term Renaissance means “Rebirth”. The movement had its origin in Italy and it gradually spread throughout the Europe. The movement had significant influence over the English Literature.
Renaissance in English Literature Summary
After the end of the War of the Roses (1453-87), Tudar Dynasty came into power in England. Henry VIII was the ruler of English from 1509-1547. He desired to annul his first marriage as he had no heir from his wife. However polygamy was prohibited under the rule of Catholic Church.
Thus he fell into conflict with the Church. He was even ex-communicated by Church but he did not pay heed to it.
To fulfil his desire he, for the first time in the History of England, ended the rule of Catholic Church and established himself as both the head of the state as well as of the Church.
This step of his influenced every aspect of English including life, culture, literature, thoughts etc from that time onward.
Also read: Background of Restoration Period
Renaissance Literature Writers
- MARTIN LUTHER: Protestantism originated with Luther’s 95 Theses in Wittenberg in 1517. Later it became the official national religion of England.
- CHARLES DARWIN: His work On the Origin of Species (1859) undermined the religious and biblical beliefs and led to the emergence of new ideas that challenged the old beliefs.
- ERASMUS: He challenged the narrowness of Catholic Church. He criticised the unnecessary rituals, the sale of pardon paper etc. He wished to return to the values of early Church. In order to do so, he produced a Greek edition of Scriptures in place of existing Latin one.
- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: He traveled in search of the Indies in 1492 and landed first in the Caribbean Island of Hispaniola and was credited with having discovered the Americas. This discovery also opened the eyes of world.
- COPERNICUS AND GALILEO: They established and postulated scientifically that Earth is not the center of universe as believed by the people.
Also read: Neoclassical Period in English Literature
Salient Features of Renaissance in English Literature
Reforms in the Institutions
In the earlier times, literature was dominated by the spirit of religion and blind faith. However in the Renaissance Age, institutions were questioned and re-evaluated. Renaissance broadened and took the cognitive level of human mind to new heights.
Dominance of Reason
In the Renaissance age, it was the reason instead of religion that governed the human behavior. Man was free to make the use of his power. Now reason dominated all the spheres of life that decreased influence of religion over the people. Most of the blind faiths and practices were given up.
Earlier religion was the centre of interest. Hence the main concern of literature was to deal with the religion directly or indirectly. In the Renaissance age, the focus shifted from religion to man and man became the centre of interest.
Development of Science
The age was accompanied by the birth of modern science, mathematics, astronomy etc.
In the 4th decade of 16th century Copernicus replaced Aristotle’s system with sun, instead of earth at the centre of universe.
In astronomy, Harvey discovered circulation of blood in 1628.
In addition to this there was the use of clocks, telescopes, thermometers, compasses, microscopes etc. Hence there was a considerable development in the scientific field.
Era of Renowned Names
The literature of the English Renaissance contains some of the greatest names in all world literature:
Dramatists: Shakespeare, Marlowe, Webster and Jonson.
Prose: Bacon, Nashe, Raleigh, Browne and Hooker.
Authorised Version of Bible was published in 1611.
The Counter Reformation
The Counter-reformation also took birth in response to reformation soon after the fame of the later touched skies. It began with the Council of Trent (1545–1563). The primary objective of this movement was to reform the Christian Catholic Church and counter the influence of Protestantism.
Also read: Main Characteristics of Romantic Prose