Concept of Anathema (lanat) In Islam
Literally, Anathema or Curse (lanat) means, “to dispel from the bounty of Allah”
TYPES OF ANATHEMA IN ISLAM
There are three types of Anathema (la’nat):
- To curse someone as cursed In Canon of Islam (Sheri’ah). E.g. Curse of Allah on pagans, Curse of Allah on liars, Curse on those men who disguise as women and those women who disguise as men (Sahih Bukhari) etc
- It is admissible to curse on such a person, whose death as a pagan is justified by strong evidence and proof. E.g. it is admissible to curse on Iblees and Abu Lahab.
- A person, about whom, by his looks, it is uncertain whether he is a believer or pagan, should never cursed upon, as it is possible that he may accept the Apt path at any time.
It has been mentioned in Jamia Trimidhi,” A believer cannot be the one, who curses a lot. It has also been mentioned that do not curse as Allah does”.
It has been mentioned in Sanan Abu Dawood,”if a person curses such a man, who didn’t deserved it, then the curse will fall on the former
Anathema (la’nat) is done on both pagans as well as on blunderer Muslims. Anathema when done on pagans means, “To totally dispel from the bounty of Allah” and when done on blunderer Muslims, it means “To dispel from contiguity (Qurb-e-Khaas) of Allah.
Some scholars are of the view that it is useless to curse such a person who has died. Some scholars hare of the opinion that it is permissible to curse all pagans without assurance while some others are of the view that it is not permissible to curse all the pagans uncertainly.
HADEES IN THIS REGARD
Muhammad ﷺ has cursed most of the pagans. Imam Nisai has narrated from Abu Hurera that Muhammad ﷺ after genuflecting (Rukuh) would make prayer for Muslims and cursed on Pagans.
Imam Nisai has narrated from Hazrat Anas (radi allah anh) that Muhammad ﷺ has cursed Ra’l, Zakwanand and Lehyan for 1 month.
Imam Nisai has narrated from Hazrat Abdullah-bin-Umar that Muhammad ﷺ after genuflecting in the 2nd Rakat, would curse double-faced with their names and at this time this verse was alighted:
Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah], is the decision whether He should [cut them down] or forgive them or punish them, for indeed, they are wrongdoers. [3:128]
Muhammad ﷺ made anathema for only pagans and double-faced of whom he ﷺ was well aware of the fact that those would never accept the faith of Islam, yet Allah forbid him ﷺ for making anathema for them as he ﷺ is the source of mercy for the whole universe.